domingo, 15 de noviembre de 2009


When the Spanish Jews fled the south of Spain, terrified by the persecution of the Catholic church who they burned alive for refusing to convert to Christianity, they didn't knew that they brought with them the knowledge of Banking to Flanders and Bruges (Brugge or witch in Spanish). The name has no connection with Jews Fleeing residents accused of witchcraft, is derived from Brug Bryggia meaning in the plural that means bridge, bridges plural, after the large number of bridges that has this city of the Netherlands.

Thomas de Torquemada, a Dominican monk, sadistic Pyromaniac who drooled at the thought of seeing a human being burned alive, was named by Pope Rodrigo de Borji, of dubious reputation, inquisitor general of Castile and Aragon. With this degree without much pressure I convince the good King Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic Monarchs, to sign the so-called Edict of Granada Which gave a period of 4 months to 200,000 Sephardic Jews to convert to Catholicism or leave Spain. Ceux qui restent were mostly burned at the stake, but not before torturing them with all kinds of torture tools invented by the good Christians Catholic priests, for the delight of Torquemada and his band of sadistic priests. One of the apprehensions of Christians toward the Jews was that it was lenders, Which was frowned upon by the church said Because they can reproduce all that was created by god, like animals and plants. The capital or money for not being God's creation should not be reproduced in the form of interest. Many Jews came to Portugal in terror where they were evacuated and many went to the region of Flanders, where they Resumed business as their lenders. In the meantime the Catholic monarchs managed to finance its colonization of America by the expropriation of most of the wealth accumulated by the terrified Jews through the business of usury, no doubt the precursor of Banking,

In Flanders the first financial organizations arise, having finally activated from the Genesis of usury. In the same city born centuries after the stock market term from the family Van der Büerse who conducted purchase and sale of securities. I can not tell if they were Jewish or Jewish descent, there are no known records, but it is not surprising that arise specifically in the Flanders region of Bruges. This family had a coat of arms as three bags of money. Büerse surname comes from the name of an exchange, the place where they make capital transactions. It is likely that they were essentially loans rather than buying and selling shares in companies, but then these institutions went into buying and selling of shares in companies and bonds. One of the first stock exchange was installed in Holland with the Company of the West Indies and then the Amsterdam Bourse. From Holland the purchase and sale of securities with the industrial revolution moved to London and after the First World War New York is the most important center of trade in securities.

In New York the sale and purchase of securities was made in the street of Wall Street. The name is given by a great wall built by the Netherlands in the Seventeenth Century to divide the area of New Amsterdam of the area occupied by the Español and the Way to Prevent the escape of slaves. The stock market Wall Street has its genesis in the agreement of a group of merchants who agreed to a number of rules for buying and selling shares in undertakings. It's called the Buttonwood Agreement in 1792. In 1817 it organized a committee called the New York Stock and Exchange Board Establishing permanent rules and structure. Then in 1863 changed its name to New York Stock Exchange. In Spanish it means literally Stock Exchange in New York.

Like other existing exchanges, this is a private organization formed by shareholders. In fact, the New York Stock Exchange or NYSE trades on its own stock exchange.

The stock market is nothing more than a market where selling and buying shares in undertakings. This has evolved in a way that more and more are Set Rules to Prevent cheating and swindling. In almost any stock exchange in the world individuals can buy and sell shares directly to this require a licensed agent or broker to negotiate for them. During the day all runners who also must have or be part of a brokerage negotiate the purchase or sale of shares or equity in the company. Although at times things get so hot it literally corridors shouting their proposed purchase or sale, most of the time or the situation is much more calm. Most buyers and sellers of shares does not intend to stay in the companies waiting for dividend distribution. What they want is that they buy shares rise in price to sell and win in the transaction This is what is called speculation.

At first, most likely the company issued shares to raise capital for their expansion or installation projects but know that speculators were willing to buy shares without the hope of selling stock dividend decide by the mere fact of getting more capital.

Of course, the NYSE is not the only place to sell and buy shares, nor is traded shares of any company. To do this you must be registered in the bag. To register be made public financial statements so that shareholders know about the advantages or disadvantages of buying or selling such shares in addition to other requirements.

Another important place where shares are bought and sold is called the Nasdaq or National Association of Securities Dealers Automated. Quotation. It is a fully automated bag. No agents screaming, everything is electronic. This bag is distinguished by having in it a number of technology companies like Microsoft, Cisco Systems, Intel, etc. .. Like the NYSE Which Has The Dow Jones NASDAQ Nasdaq Composite consists in showing the percentage change in price of all shares traded on the NASDAQ. This compound is a calculation that takes into account the size of the company and the division of shares, and the NASDAQ 100 which include the hundred largest companies listed on NASDAQ.

Another index that is included in the Standard and Poor's, a division of McGrau Hill that takes into account the 500 index to its biggest companies in the world.

The issuance of shares of companies established to seek leverage, that is Obtaining funding. It can issue Greenwich common shares are traded on the stock, or priority shares.

The issuance of shares of companies established to seek leverage, that is Obtaining funding. For that may issue common stock, Which are those listed on the stock, or issuing priority shares. The common shares are at equal risk of the other shareholders of the company and receive a percentage of dividends equal to its participation in the company. Instead the preference shares are guaranteed a specific percentage of the dividends, but unlike the common shares holders is not entitled to voice or vote. In Panama, almost all companies are family businesses, not public. When companies listed their shares on the stock market are called public corporations. Nothing to do with the state as shareholder. Companies prefer to be familiars Because the public companies required to publish financial statements, making it very difficult for the company to include her family expenses, or include their relatives in the payrools, Because Of course the shareholders will not allow it, as it goes against their individual interests.

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